Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus. Found in Southeast Asia and bordering areas, they range from Bangladesh and Northeast India in the west to the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines in the east, and from Yunnan province in China in the north to the island of Java in the south.
Although many previous classifications recognized as few as a single all-inclusive species, there are now at least eight that are considered valid: the Sunda slow loris N.
The group's closest relatives are the slender lorises of southern India and Sri Lanka. Their next closest relatives are the African lorisidsthe pottosfalse pottosand angwantibos. They are less closely related to the remaining lorisoids the various types of galagoand more distantly to the lemurs of Madagascar. Their evolutionary history is uncertain since their fossil record is patchy and molecular clock studies have given inconsistent results.
Slow lorises have a round head, a narrow snout, large eyes, and a variety of distinctive coloration patterns that are species-dependent. Their arms and legs are nearly equal in length, and their torso is long and flexible, allowing them to twist and extend to nearby branches. The hands and feet of slow lorises have several adaptations that give them a pincer-like grip and enable them to grasp branches for long periods of time. Slow lorises have a toxic bite, a trait rare among mammals and unique to primates.
Their toxic bite is a deterrent to predators, and the toxin is also applied to the fur during grooming as a form of protection for their infants. The secretion from the arm contains a chemical related to cat allergenbut may be augmented by secondary toxins from the diet in wild individuals.
Slow lorises move slowly and deliberately, making little or no noise, and when threatened, they stop moving and remain motionless. Their only documented predators—apart from humans—include snakes, changeable hawk-eagles and orangutansalthough cats, civets and sun bears are suspected.
Little is known about their social structure, but they are known to communicate by scent marking. Males are highly territorial. Slow lorises reproduce slowly, and the infants are initially parked on branches or carried by either parent. They are omnivoreseating small animals, fruit, tree gumand other vegetation. The three newest species are yet to be evaluated, but they arise from and further reduce the ranks of what was thought to be a single "vulnerable" species.
All four of these are expected to be listed with at least the same, if not a higher-risk, conservation status. All slow lorises are threatened by the wildlife trade and habitat loss. Their habitat is rapidly disappearing and becoming fragmentedmaking it nearly impossible for slow lorises to disperse between forest fragments; unsustainable demand from the exotic pet trade and from traditional medicine has been the greatest cause for their decline.
Deep-rooted beliefs about the supernatural powers of slow lorises, such as their purported abilities to ward off evil spirits or to cure wounds, have popularized their use in traditional medicine. Despite local laws prohibiting trade in slow lorises and slow loris products, as well as protection from international commercial trade under Appendix Islow lorises are openly sold in animal markets in Southeast Asia and smuggled to other countries, such as Japan.
Due in part to the large eyes that are an adaptation to their nocturnal lifestyle, they have also been popularized as ' cute ' pets in viral videos on YouTube. Slow lorises have their teeth cut or pulled out for the pet trade. They make poor pets as they are nocturnal, have specialized diets, are difficult to care for, and often die from infection, blood loss, improper caring and handling or inadequate nutrition. Slow lorises genus Nycticebus are strepsirrhine primates and are related to other living lorisoidssuch as slender lorises Lorispottos Perodicticusfalse pottos Pseudopottoangwantibos Arctocebusand galagos family Galagidaeand to the lemurs of Madagascar.The small, huge-eyed primates may look adorable being tickled, getting brushed or clutching tiny umbrellas, but they're actually suffering, according to the film, which was posted online last week by U.
The first loris video to go viral, posted online inshows a female named Sonya being tickled while she lifts her arms over her head. The IAR, which runs a slow loris rehabilitation center in Indonesia, says that a loris raising up its arms is a sign of distress.
Lorises secrete venom from a gland inside the elbow. When they feel threatened, the IAR site explains, they lift their arms to mix the venom with saliva before biting the threat. Additionally, the bright light present in videos of Sonya and other lorises is uncomfortable for the nocturnal animals.
The suffering of slow lorises in the pet trade begins long before they reach a person's home, however. Slow lorises sold as pets have typically been taken illegally from the wild in Southeast Asia.
The illegal pet trade is one of the major threats to the wild population, which is also at risk due to habitat loss and poaching for traditional medicines. She explains on her website :. Large percentages of captured slow lorises die due to overcrowded, stressful conditions during transportation, according to the IAR. In80 percent of lorises confiscated at a Taiwanese airport died during transport to a zoo.
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The Upsetting Truth Behind 'Cute' Slow Loris Videos
A pygmy slow loris for sale at a market in Vietnam in November A pygmy slow loris and her 6-week-old baby at a Hungarian zoo in Calling all HuffPost superfans! Sign up for membership to become a founding member and help shape HuffPost's next chapter. Join HuffPost. Hilary Hanson. Suggest a correction.
Today is National Voter Registration Day! The slow loris is threatened with extinction due to a growing demand in the exotic pet trade.I'm sorry about the Iranian earthquake. But if you want to avoid earthquakes, don't go to Iran. Don't ride on a ferry in Bangladesh: it'll capsize. Don't take a bus in the mountains of Honduras: you'll plunge. Don't go to Myanmar if you hate cyclones. In praise of conspiracy theories, part un. And what do they say about paranoia? That just because you're paranoid doesn't mean nobody's out to get you?
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They do even stranger things to palm trees in Malaysia than they do in Houston. And even the monkey licking is free! But today, my heart belongs to the slow loris. And Sunday afternoons, they broadcast that game with the horses and the dead goat. Calling Pat Summerall. About Diane's Evil Scheme.
It worked! Somewhere, there are digital photos to prove it. MeMo: Iran quakes. Slow loris. Goat games. Most Popular.The pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus is a species of slow loris found east of the Mekong River in VietnamLaoseastern Cambodiaand China. It occurs in a variety of forest habitats, including tropical dry forestssemi- evergreenand evergreen forests.
The animal is nocturnal and arborealcrawling along branches using slow movements in search of prey.
Unlike other primates, it does not leap. It lives together in small groups usually with one or two offspring. Its diet consists of fruits, insects, small fauna, tree sap, and floral nectar.
The animal has a toxic bite, which it gets by licking a toxic secretion from glands on the inside of its elbows. The teeth in its lower jaw form a comb-like structure called a toothcomb that is used for scraping resin from tree bark. The pygmy slow loris mates once every 12—18 months and has one or two offspring after an average gestation period of six months.
For the first few days, the young loris clings to the belly of its mother. After six months the baby will be weaned, the females reach sexual maturity by 16 months, while the male reaches maturity by about 18 months. The pygmy slow loris is seasonally fertile during the months of July and August.
Chemical signals play a role in the reproductive behavior of female pygmy slow lorises. Urine scent markings have a strong characteristic odor and are used to communication information about social relationships. The habitat of the pygmy slow loris in Vietnam was greatly reduced due to extensive burning, clearing, and defoliating of forests during the Vietnam War.
Extensive hunting for traditional medicines is currently putting severe pressure on Cambodian populations. The pygmy slow loris was first described scientifically by J. Lewis Bonhote in The description was based on a male specimen sent to him by J. In an influential publication, primatologist William Charles Osman Hill also consolidated all the slow lorises in one species, Nycticebus coucangand considered other forms distinct at the subspecies level.
Osman Hill thus listed Nycticebus coucang pygmaeus while acknowledging that "it may be deemed necessary to accede this form specific rank. In this analysis, most of the recognized lineages of Nycticebusincluding the pygmy slow loris, were shown to be genetically distinct, and the species was shown to have diverged earlier than the other slow loris species,  beginning perhaps 2.
The authors of the study suggest that the low polymorphism of pygmy slow lorises may be due to a founder effectand that the individuals they used in the study originate from an ancestor that lived in middle or southern Vietnam between and years ago. The animal tends to have significantly higher bodyweights during the winter months, about 50 percent higher than the lowest values in the summer. The weight gains, achieved largely by increasing food intake, are triggered by changes in the length of the day and night.
This seasonal change in bodyweight occurs in both sexes, in both pregnant and non-pregnant females—an adaptation thought to help ensure survival during winter when food resources become scarce. Like other strepsirrhine primates, the pygmy slow loris has tapeta lucida in its eyes to assist with night vision.
There is a white stripe extending from the nose to the forehead, and the sides of the head and upper lip are silvery gray, while the rest of the face and top of the head is rufous.The pygmy slow loris has declined in numbers as a result of extensive habitat degradation throughout its range, including north-eastern Cambodia, the Yunnan Province of Chinaand Vietnam.
The use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange, during the Vietnam War and the ongoing clearing of forests in Vietnam have resulted in a considerable loss of habitat. Due to a combination of unstable political situations in its range, and its nocturnal, arboreal lifestyle, population data for the pygmy slow loris are scarce.
The population in China has been estimated at less than individuals. In the s, one estimate placed the population at roughly 72, individuals, while another estimate from the same period placed the number around — individuals.
This enormous discrepancy underlines the difficulty to calculate population size without detailed field studies. In Laos, the wildlife status report of describes the species as "little known" and "common", based on availability of potential habitat. The European Union EU describes the population status in Laos as "apparently widespread, but not common anywhere". In addition to habitat destruction, the pygmy slow loris is seriously threatened by hunting and trade.
Within its geographic range and neighbor countries, the trade in the pygmy slow loris has recently increased due to economic changes and human population growth, and the trend is expected to continue. Decreased sightings in the field and at animal markets indicate that wild populations are being depleted since the low reproduction rate of the pygmy slow loris cannot keep pace with these large-scale off-takes.
Accordingly, conservationists and field biologists fear local extinctions in the near future. Within the whole Indochinese region, populations of the pygmy slow loris have drastically decreased as a result of military activities, defoliant spraying, logging, and massive off-takes, especially in Vietnam.
It has been extirpated in the northern part of this country due to the belief that it is a crop pest. The demand of the pet and the medicinal markets is further aggravating the situation, which is reflected by its abundance in many local markets.
This demand has recently increased due to human population growth and improved economic conditions within the region. The population in southern China has been reduced to a few hundred individuals, and by another report, may be locally extinct.
The decreasing number of pygmy slow lorises for sale corroborates reports of rapid declines in Vietnamese populations. Byfield sightings were becoming scarce, and there were reports that it had disappeared from large parts of its range, particularly in areas with intense logging and agriculture. In Cambodia, widespread declines have been associated with increases in hunting pressure during and In one field survey, three areas with high encounter rates in early were resurveyed in late andbut no individuals were encountered.
This change was thought to be due to both high hunting pressures and gold mine development. Both the Bengal slow loris and pygmy slow loris are found in more than 20 protected areas, although their populations are either low or insufficiently recorded.
The pygmy slow loris is protected in most of its range states: in Cambodia, China, and Vietnam. This makes hunting and capture illegal, and in China and Vietnam, possession and storage are also illegal. Under Vietnamese law it has had the highest level of wildlife protection sinceall exploitation and use of the pygmy slow loris is illegal. However, enforcement is poor while minor penalties have little deterring effect.
In addition, since Octoberthe European Union prohibits imports for all wild specimens of pygmy slow loris from Laos and Cambodia for conservation reasons. The species has been recorded in at least 6 national parks and 12 nature reserves. However, the species is still vulnerable to hunting, even in protected areas. Non-experts may find it difficult to distinguish between the pygmy slow loris and the Sunda slow lorisas both have similarly reddish fur, which is variable in colors.
In international shipments, pygmy lorises may be even mixed up with pottos or lemurs.
Slowloris (computer security)
View more. The pygmy slow loris has scent glands near its elbow brachial glands. When startled, the slow loris licks its brachial glands and applies the secretion to its heads.
The oily secretion is similar to properties found in cat dander. The pygmy slow loris is about inches long and weighs about 2 pounds. The wooly coat of the pygmy slow loris is short and thick. The coloration varies from light brownish to deep reddish brown. There is often a dark midline along the neck and back. They do not have tails but are well equipped for climbing trees because of their opposable thumbs.
All loris species are nocturnal and very secretive which makes field research difficult. During the day loris sleep in branches, crevasses or buried in leaf litter on the ground. All loris communicate through olfaction and use urine to mark their territories. Pygmy loris mate from July to early September with a gestation period of days.
They typically give birth to one or two offspring between early February and mid-March. There is very little known about the pygmy loris in the wild partly due to the unstable political situations in their native countries. In the wild, the slow loris spends most of their night foraging for invertebrates such as beetles, weevils, caterpillars, crickets and spiders.
They mostly eat seeds and fruit and occasionally will feed on small mammals and birds. The pygmy slow loris is considered to be under-protected in the wild.
A Species Survival Plan was established for the pygmy slow loris in in order to help conserve the species. Accept and Close. Tickets Hours Events.
About Pygmy Slow Lorises The pygmy slow loris is about inches long and weighs about 2 pounds. Pygmy Slow Lorises in the Wild Habitat They inhabit tropical rainforests, evergreen forests and bamboo groves. Diet In the wild, the slow loris spends most of their night foraging for invertebrates such as beetles, weevils, caterpillars, crickets and spiders.Slowloris is a type of denial of service attack tool invented by Robert "RSnake" Hansen which allows a single machine to take down another machine's web server with minimal bandwidth and side effects on unrelated services and ports.
Slowloris tries to keep many connections to the target web server open and hold them open as long as possible. It accomplishes this by opening connections to the target web server and sending a partial request. Periodically, it will send subsequent HTTP headers, adding to—but never completing—the request. Affected servers will keep these connections open, filling their maximum concurrent connection pool, eventually denying additional connection attempts from clients.
This includes but is not necessarily limited to the following, per the attack's author: . Because Slowloris exploits problems handling thousands of connectionsthe attack has less of an effect on servers that handle large numbers of connections well. Proxying servers and caching accelerators such as Varnish, nginxand Squid have been recommended  to mitigate this particular kind of attack. While there are no reliable configurations of the affected web servers that will prevent the Slowloris attack, there are ways to mitigate or reduce the impact of such an attack.
In general, these involve increasing the maximum number of clients the server will allow, limiting the number of connections a single IP address is allowed to make, imposing restrictions on the minimum transfer speed a connection is allowed to have, and restricting the length of time a client is allowed to stay connected. Other mitigating techniques involve setting up reverse proxiesfirewallsload balancers or content switches.
For example, lighttpd and nginx do not succumb to this specific attack. During the protests that erupted in the wake of the Iranian presidential electionSlowloris arose as a prominent tool used to leverage DoS attacks against sites run by the Iranian government. The Slowloris attack was chosen instead, because of its high impact and relatively low bandwidth. A variant of this attack was used by spam network River City Media to force Gmail servers to send thousands of messages in bulk, by opening thousands of connections to the Gmail API with message sending requests, then completing them all at once.
Since its release, a number of programs have appeared that mimic the function of Slowloris while providing additional functionality, or running in different environments: .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Slowloris Slowloris running on Command Prompt. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original PDF on 1 February Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 3 July MacKeeper Security Watch. Archived from the original on 6 March Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 8 April Net core".
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